Circular Motion : Angular displacement, Angular velocity and angular acceleration,
Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity,
Uniform circular motion, Radial acceleration,
Centripetal and centrifugal forces,
Banking of roads,
Vertical circular motion due to earth's gravitation,
Equation for velocity and energy at different positions of vertical circular motion.
Kinematical equations for circular motion in analogy with linear motion.
Kinematics :
Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.
Laws of Motion
Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road,
vehicle on banked road).
Kinematics
Motion in a plane, Projectile Motion, Uniform Circular Motion.
Laws of Motion
Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force and its applications.
Solid State : Classification of solids based on different forces;
molecular solids
BONDING IN ICE AND WATER:
ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea),
unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices,
calculation of density of unit cell,
packing in solids,
voids,
number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell,
point defects,
IMPERFECTION IN SOLIDS
electrical and magnetic properties,
Band theory of metals,
conductors and semiconductors and insulators
n and p type semiconductors.
Solid State :
Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.
States of Matter :
Solid State: Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Bragg's Law and its applications; Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties.
Mathematical Logic : Statements - Introduction, sentences and statement, truth value of statement, open sentences, compound statement, quantifier and quantified statements, logical connectives : conjunction, disjunction, negation, implication/ conditional, biconditional, truth tables of compound statements, examples related to real life and mathematics, statement patterns and logical equivalence - tautology, contradiction, contingency, duality, negation of compound statement, contrapositive, converse, inverse, algebra of statements-idempotent law, associative law, commutative law, distributive law, identity law, complement law, involution law, DeMorgan's laws, difference between converse, contrapositive, contradiction, application-introduction to switching circuits (simple examples).
Mathematical Reasoning :
Statements, logical operations and, or, implies, implied by, if and only if. Understanding of tautology, contradiction, converse and contrapositive.
Genetic Basis of Inheritance : Mendelian inheritance.
Deviations from Mendelian ratio
(gene interaction
incomplete dominance,
co-dominance,
multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups),
Pleiotropy,
Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance.
Genetics and Evolution :
Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes;
Gravitation :
Newton's law of gravitation,
Projection of satellite, Periodic time,
Statement of Kepler's laws of motion,
Binding energy and escape velocity of a satellite,
Weightlessness condition in orbit,
Variation of 'g' due to altitude, lattitude, depth and motion,
Communication satellite and its uses.
Gravitation :
Kepler's laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.
Gravitation :
The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.
Solutions and Colligative Properties : Types of solutions,
expression of concentration of solids in liquids,
solubility of gases in liquids,
solid solutions,
colligative properties-relative lowering of vapor pressure,
Raoult's law elevation of boiling point,
depression of freezing point,
osmotic pressure,
determination of molecular masses using colligative properties,
abnormal molecular mass.
Van't Hoff factor and calculations involving it.
Solutions :
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties- relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult's law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor.
Solutions : Different methods for expressing concentration of solution-molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult's Law-Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure -composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions; Colligative properties of dilute solutions-relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, van't Hoff factor and its significance.
Matrices : Elementary transformation of a matrix revision of cofactor and minor, elementary row transformation, elementary column transformation, inverse of a matrix existance and uniqueness of inverse of a matrix, inverse by elementary transformation, adjoint method, application-solution of system of linear equations by - reduction method, inversion method.
Matrices and Determinants :
Properties of determinants, evaluation of determinants, area of triangles using determinants. Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using determinants and elementary transformations, Test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables using determinants and matrices.
Gene: its nature, expression and regulation : Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron, muton and recon.
DNA as genetic material,
structure of DNA as given by Watson and Crick's model,
DNA Packaging,
semi conservative replication of eukaryotic DNA.
RNA: General structure,
types of RNA
functions of RNA
Protein Synthesis;
central dogma,
Transcription; Translation-Genetic Code,
Gene Expression
Gene Regulation
(The Lac operon as a typical model of gene regulation).
Genetics and Evolution :
Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation-Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
Rotational Motion :
Definition of M.I.,
K.E. of rotating body,
Rolling motion,
Physical significance of M.I.,
Radius of gyration,
Torque,
Principle of parallel and perpendicular axes,
M.I. of some regular shaped bodies about specific axes,
Angular momentum and its conservation.
Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body (XI):
Moment of a force,torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples.
Rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational
motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement
of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.
Rotational Motion (XI) :
Moment of inertia, radius of gyration.
Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. Rigid body rotation, equations of rotational motion.
Basic concepts of rotational motion; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum and its applications.
Chemical Thermodynamics and Energetic : Concepts of system,
types of systems,surroundings.
Work,
heat,
Energy,
Extensive and intensive properties,
state functions.
First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy,
Hess' law of constant heat summation,
enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation.
Phase transition,
ENTHALPY OF IONIZATION
solution and dilution
Introduction of entropy as a state function,
free energy change for spontaneous and non spontaneous processes, and equilibrium constant.
Second law of thermodynamics
third law of thermodynamics
Thermodynamics :
First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess's law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution.
Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity.
Third law of thermodynamics-Brief introduction.
Chemical Thermodynamics :
Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes.
First law of thermodynamics: Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity; Hess's law of constant heat summation; Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and solution.
Second law of thermodynamics: Spontaneity of processes; S of the universe and G of the system as criteria for spontaneity, Go (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.
Trigonometric functions : Trigonometric equations-general solution of trigonometric equation of the type : , , , , , , , , , solution of a triangle : polar coordinates, sine rule, cosine rule, projection rule, area of a triangle, application, Hero's formula, Napier Analogues, inverse trigonometric functions-definitions, domain, range, principle values, graphs of inverse trigonometric function, properties of inverse functions.
Trigonometry:
Trigonometric functions, their periodicity and graphs, addition and subtraction formulae, formulae involving multiple and sub-multiple angles, general solution of trigonometric equations. Relations between sides and angles of a triangle, sine rule, cosine rule, half-angle formula and the area of a triangle, inverse trigonometric functions (principal value only).
Biotechnology: Process and Application :
Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology):
Transposons,
Plasmids,
Bacteriophages;
Producing Restriction Fragments,
Preparing and cloning a DNA Library,
Gene Amplification (PCR).
Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture -
BT crops
Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents)
Biotechnology and Its Applications :
Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.
Oscillations :
Explanation of periodic motion,
S.H.M.,
Differential equation of linear S.H.M.
Projection of U.C.M. on any diameter,
Phase of S.H.M.,
K.E. and P.E. in S.H.M.,Composition of two S.H.M.'s having same period and along same line, Simple pendulum,
Damped S.H.M.
Oscillations and Waves :
Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic
motion(SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM-Kinetic
and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period.
Oscillations and Waves :
Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M.-kinetic and potential energies; Simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period.
Redox reactions :
conductance in electrolytic solutions,
specific and molar conductivity,
variations of conductivity with concentration,
Kohlrausch's Law,
electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea),
FARADAY'S LAWS OF ELECTROLYSIS:
dry cell-electrolytic and galvanic cells;
lead accumulator,
EMF of a cell,
standard electrode potential,
Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells,
fuel cells;
corrosion.
Relation between Gibb's energy change and emf of a cell.
Electrochemistry: Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variation of conductivity with
concentration, kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell-electrolytic cells and
Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs energy change and
EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.
Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry :
Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.
Eectrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlrausch's law and its applications.
Electrochemical cells-Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half- cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement; Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs' energy change; Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention.
Pair of straight lines : Pair of lines passing through origincombined equation, homogenous equation, theorem-the joint equation of a pair of lines passing through origin and its converse, acute angle between the lines represented by , condition for parallel lines, condition for perpendicular lines, pair of lines not passing through origin-combined equation of any two lines, condition that the equation should represent a pair of lines (without proof), acute angle between the lines (without proof), condition of parallel and perpendicular lines, point of intersection of two lines.
Co-ordinate Geometry :
Cartesian system of rectangular co-ordinates in a plane, distance formula, section formula, locus and its equation, translation of axes, slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes. Straight lines :
Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two lines, conditions for concurrence of three lines, distance of a point from a line, equations of internal and external bisectors of angles between two lines, coordinates of centroid, orthocentre and circumcentre of a triangle, equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines.
Enhancement in Food Production : Plant Breeding
Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular Totipotency,
Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief),
Callus Culture, Suspension Culture.
Single Cell Protein.
Biofortification.
Biology and Human Welfare: Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
Elasticity :
General explanation of elastic property,
Plasticity,
Deformation,
Definition of stress and strain,
Hooke's law,
Poisson's ratio,
Elastic energy,
Elastic constants and their relation,
Determination of 'Y',
Behaviour of metal wire under increasing load,
Applications of elastic behaviour of materials.
Chemical Kinetics : Rate of reaction (average and instantaneous),
factors affecting rate of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and
molecularity of a reaction;
REACTIONS, THEIR CHARACTERISTICS AND HALF-LIVE
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON RATE OF REACTIONS-ARRHENIUS THEORY,
RATE LAW AND SPECIFIC RATE CONSTANT INTEGRATED RATE EQUATIONS AND HALF LIFE (ONLY FOR ZERO AND FIRST ORDER REACTIONS);
CONCEPT OF COLLISION THEORY (ELEMENTARY IDEA, NO MATHEMATICAL TREATMENT).
ACTIVATION ENERGY
Chemical Kinetics: Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.
Chemical Kinetics : Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst; elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions, their characteristics and half - lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions - Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation).
Vectors : Revision, Collinearity and coplanarity of vectors : linear combination of vectors, condition of collinearity of two vectors, conditions of coplanarity of three vectors, section formula : section formula for internal and external division, midpoint formula, centroid formula, scaler triple product : definition, formula, properties, geometrical interpretation of scalar triple product, application of vectors to geometrymedians of a triangle are concurrent, altitudes of a triangle are concurrent, angle bisectors of a triangle are concurrent, diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other and converse, median of trapezium is parallel to the parallel sides and its length is half the sum of parallel sides, angle subtended on a semicircle is right angle.
Vector Algebra :
Vectors and scalars, addition of vectors, components of a vector in two dimensions and three dimensional space, scalar and vector products, scalar and vector triple product.
Microbes in Human Welfare : Microbes in Household food processing.
Microbes in Industrial Production.
Microbes in Sewage Treatment.
Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production.
Microbes as Biocontrol Agents.
Microbes as Biofertilizers.
Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
Surface Tension :
Surface tension on the basis of molecular theory, Surface energy, Surface tension,
Angle of contact, Capillarity and capillary action,
Effect of impurity and temperature on surface tension.
Properties of Bulk Matter (XI) :
Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops,
bubbles and capillary rise.
Properties of Solids and Liquids :
Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension-drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements : Principles and methods of extraction-
concentration,
oxidation,
reduction
electrolytic method
refining;
FLUX
SLAG
occurrence and principle of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron
ALUMINIUM (AL):
COPPER:
ZINC:
IRON:
General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements: Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
General Principles and Process of Isolation of Metals : Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; steps involved in the extraction of metals - concentration, reduction (chemical. and electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals.
Three dimensional geometry : Direction cosines and direction ratios: direction angles, direction cosines, direction ratios, relation between direction ratio and direction cosines, angle between two lines, condition of perpendicular lines.
Three Dimensional Geometry :
Coordinates of a point in space, distance between two points, section formula, direction ratios and direction cosines, angle between two intersecting lines. Skew lines, the shortest distance between them and its equation. Equations of a line and a plane in different forms, intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar lines.
Photosynthesis : Autotrophic nutrition
Site of Photosynthesis
Photosynthetic Pigments and their role.
Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation)
Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4 Pathways)
Chemiosmotic hypothesis,
Photorespiration,
Factors affecting Photosynthesis.
Law of limiting factors.
Plant Physiology :
Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration and pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
Wave Motion :
Simple harmonic progressive waves,Reflection of transverse and longitudinal waves,
Change of phase, Superposition of waves, Formation of beats,
Doppler effect in sound.
Oscillations and Waves :
Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave.
Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode
and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect.
Oscillations and Waves :
Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of a wave. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, Standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect in sound.
Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen- preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phoshorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous; preparation and properties of phosphine, halides and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen; preparation, properties and uses; Classification of oxides, simple oxides; Ozone. Sulphur-allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur; preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphurc acid; industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens; preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structure only).
Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses."
p-Block Elements Group 15 elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur-allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses."
p - Block Elements Group 15 to Group 18 Elements :
General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each group.
Group - 15
Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, ; Structures of oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorus.
Group - 16
Preparation, properties, structures and uses of dioxygen and ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.
Group - 17
Preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.
Group - 18
Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.
Line : Equation of line passing through given point and parallel to given vector, equation of line passing through two given points, distance of a point from a line, distance between two skew lines, distance between two parallel lines (vector approach).
Three Dimensional Geometry :
Coordinates of a point in space, distance between two points, section formula, direction ratios and direction cosines, angle between two intersecting lines. Skew lines, the shortest distance between them and its equation. Equations of a line and a plane in different forms, intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar lines.
Plant Respiration : ATP as currency of Energy
Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis, TCA Cycle and Electron Transport System) and Anaerobic Respiration. Fermentation
Exchange of gases
Amphibolic pathway.
Respiratory quotient of Nutrients.
Significance of Respiration.
Plant Physiology :
Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
Stationary Waves :
Study of vibrations in a finite medium,
Formation of stationary waves on string,
Study of vibrations of air columns, Free and Forced vibrations, Resonance.
Oscillations and Waves :
Free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.
Oscillations and Waves :
Free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance.
d and f Block Elements :
d-Block Elements-General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals-metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation preparation and properties of and .
f-Block elements-Lanthanoids-Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences. Actinoids- Electronic configuration, oxidation states. Comparison with lanthanoids.
d and f Block Elements :
General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of and .
Lanthanoids-electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
d and f-Block Elements Transition Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of the first row transition elements-physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of and .
Inner Transition Elements
Lanthanoids-Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids-Electronic configuration and oxidation states."
Plane : Equation of plane in normal form, equation of plane passing through the given point and perpendicular to given vector, equation of plane passing through the given point and parallel to two given vectors, equation of plane passing through three noncollinear points, equation of plane passing through the intersection of two given planes, angle between two planes, angle between line and plane, condition for the coplanarity of two lines, distance of a point from a plane (vector approach).
Three Dimensional Geometry :
Coordinates of a point in space, distance between two points, section formula, direction ratios and direction cosines, angle between two intersecting lines. Skew lines, the shortest distance between them and its equation. Equations of a line and a plane in different forms, intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar lines.
Reproduction in Plants : Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual).
Asexual reproduction;
uniparental modes vegetative propagation,
micropropagation
Sexual Reproduction:
structure of flower
Development of male gametophyte,
Structure of anatropous ovule.
Development of female Gametophyte.
Pollination: Types and Agencies.
Outbreeding devices;
pollen-pistil interaction.
Double Fertilization: Process and
Significance. Post-fertilization changes (development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit)Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy,
polyembryony. Significance of seed and
fruit formation.
Reproduction :
Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction - Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollinationtypes, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events-Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
Kinetic theory of gases and Radiation :
Concept of an ideal gas,
Assumptions of kinetic theory,
Mean free path, Derivation for pressure of a gas,
Degrees of freedom,
Derivation of Boyle's law,
Thermodynamics-Thermal equilibrium
definition of temperature,
1st law of thermodynamics,
2nd law of thermodynamics,
Heat engines and refrigerators,
Qualitative idea of black body radiation,
Wein's displacement law,
Green house effect,
Stefan's law,
Maxwell distribution,
Law of equipartition of energy and application to Specific heat capacities of gases.
Properties of Bulk Matter :
Heat transfer- conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation.
Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation,
Wein's displacement law, and Green House effect.
Newton's law of cooling and Stefan's law.
Thermodynamics:
Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy.
First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.
Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.
Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory:
Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.
Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; degrees of freedom, law of
equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path.
Thermodynamics:
Thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, concept of temperature. Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Carnot engine and its efficiency.
Kinetic Theory of Gases:
Equation of state of a perfect gas, work doneon compressing a gas.Kinetic theory of gases-assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature: rms speed of gas molecules; Degrees of freedom, Law of equipartition of energy,applications to specific heat capacities of gases; Mean free path, Avogadro's number."
Coordination compounds : Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, bonding; Werner's theory, VBT, CFT. isomerism, (structural and stereo) importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).
Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner's theory VBT,CFT; importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, biological systems).
Co-ordination Compounds :
Introduction to co-ordination compounds, Werner's theory; ligands, co-ordination number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds, isomerism; Bonding-Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems).
Linear programming problems : Introduction of L.P.P. definition of constraints, objective function, optimization, constraint equations, nonnegativity restrictions, feasible and infeasible region, feasible solutions, Mathematical formulation-mathematical formulation of L.P.P. different types of L.P.P. problems, graphical solutions for problem in two variables, optimum feasible solution.
Organisms and Environment-I : Ecosystems:
Patterns, components,
productivity and
decomposition,
energy flow;
pyramids of number,
biomass,
energy;
nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous).
Ecological succession,
Ecological servicescarbon
fixation,
pollination,
oxygen release.
Environmental issues: agrochemicals and their effects,
solid waste management,
Green house effect and global warming,
ozone depletion,
deforestation
Ecology and environment :
Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.
Ecology and environment :
Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
Wave theory of light :
Huygens' Principle,
Construction of plane and spherical wave front,
Wave front and wave normal, Reflection at plane surface, Refraction at plane surface,
Polarisation,
Polaroids, Plane polarised light, Brewster's law,
Doppler effect in light.
Optics :
Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens' principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using
wavefronts.
Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens' principle.
Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster's law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.
Optics :
Wave optics: wavefront and Huygens' principle, Laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle. Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster's law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.
Halogen derivatives of alkanes (and arenes):
Haloalkanes : Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Stability of carbocations,R-S and d-l configuration
Haloarenes : Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) stability of carbocations, R-S and d-l configurations. Uses and environmental effects of-dichloromethane, thrichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes :
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation.
Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).
Uses and environment effects of -dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Organic Compounds Containing Halogens:
General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions.
Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform, iodoform, freons and DDT.
Continuity : Continuity of a function at a point : left hand limit, right hand limit, definition of continuity of a function at a point, discontinuity of a function, types of discontinuity, algebra of continuous functions, continuity in interval-definition,continuity of some standard functions polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic function.
Limit, Continuity and Differentiability :
Real - valued functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, continuity and differentiability. Differentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions. Differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, composite and implicit functions; derivatives of order upto two. Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorems. Applications of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities, monotonic - increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of functions of one variable, tangents and normals.
Origin and the Evolution of Life :
assembly of organic compounds,
Evolution: Darwin’s contribution,
Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution,
Biological Evidences,
Mechanism of evolution;
Gene flow
genetic drift;
Hardy-Weinberg principle;
Adaptive radiation.
Origin and Evolution of Human being.
Genetics and Evolution :
Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin's contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg's principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
Interference and diffraction :
Interference of light,Conditions for producing steady interference pattern,
Young's experiment,
Analytical treatment of interference bands,
Measurement of wavelength by biprism experiment,
Diffraction due to single slit,
Rayleigh's criterion, Resolving power of a microscope and telescope,
Difference between interference and diffraction
Optics :
Interference, Young's double hole experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.
Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.
Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes.
Optics :
Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes.
Alcohols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses of methanol and ethanol.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers :Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers :
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties uses.
Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen :
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration.
Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer - Tiemann reaction.
Ethers: Structure.
Differentiation : Revision-revision of derivative, relationship between continuity and differentiability-left hand derivative and right hand derivative (need and concept), every differentiable function is continuous but converse is not true, Derivative of composite function-chain rule, derivative of inverse function, derivative of inverse trigonometric function : Derivative of implicit function definition and examples, derivative of parametric function-definition of parametric function , exponential and logarithmic functionderivative of functions which are expressed in one of the following form a) product of functions, b) quotient of functions, c) higher order derivative, second order derivative d)
Limit, Continuity and Differentiability :
Real - valued functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, continuity and differentiability. Differentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions. Differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, composite and implicit functions; derivatives of order upto two. Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorems. Applications of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities, monotonic - increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of functions of one variable, tangents and normals."
Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance :
Chromosomes.
Linkage and
Crossing Over.
Sex-linked Inheritance (Haemophilia and colour blindness).
Sex Determination
Sex Determination in Human being,
Sex Determination birds,
Sex Determination in honey bee.
Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia. Chromosomal disorders in human: Down's syndrome, Turner's syndrome and Klinfelter's syndrome.
Genetics and Evolution :
Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter' syndromes.
Gauss' theorem proof and applications,
Mechanical force on unit area of a charged conductor,
Energy density of a medium,
Dielectrics and electric polarisation,
Concept of condenser,
Capacity of parallel plate condenser,
Effect of dielectric on capacity,
Energy of charged condenser,
Condensers in series and parallel,
van-de- Graaff generator.
Electrostatics :
Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside)
Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges: equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric diploes in an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator.
Electrostatics :
Electric flux, Gauss's law and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators, Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, Energy stored in a capacitor.
Aldehydes and ketones : Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation. Physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
Carboxylic acids : Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids :
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen :
Aldehyde and Ketones
Nature of carbonyl group; Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such as-Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of and its derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity of?- hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction; Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.
Carboxylic Acids: Acidic strength and factors affecting it.
Applications of derivative : Geometrical application-tangent and normal at a point, Rolle's theorem, and Mean value theorem and their geometrical interpretation (without proof), derivative as a rate measure-introduction, increasing and decreasing function, approximation (without proof), Maxima and minimaintroduction of extrema and extreme values, maxima and minima in a closed interval, first derivative test, second derivative test.
Limit, Continuity and Differentiability :
Real-valued functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, continuity and differentiability. Differentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions. Differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, composite and implicit functions; derivatives of order upto two. Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorems. Applications of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities, monotonic-increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of functions of one variable, tangents and normals.
Genetic Engineering and Genomics : DNA Finger Printing.
Genomics and Human Genome Project.
Human Genome Project.
Biotechnological Applications in Health:
Human insulin
vaccine production,
Gene Therapy.
Transgenic animals.
Genome and human genome project DNA finger printing.
Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically
modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals
Current Electricity :
Kirchhoff's law,
Wheatstone's bridge,
Meter bridge,
Potentiometer.
Current Electricity :
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric
current
Kirchhoff's laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells;
measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
Current Electricity :
Electric Cell and its Internal resistance, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff's laws and their applications. Wheatstone bridge, Metre bridge. Potentiometer - principle and its applications.
Organic compounds containing nitrogen : Nitro compounds-General methods of preparation and chemical reactions
Amines : Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and isocyanides: Will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen :
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides-will be mentioned at relevant places.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen :
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.
Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Integration :
Indefinite integrals-methods of integration, substitution method, integrals of the various types, integration by parts (reduction formulae are not expected), integration by partial fraction-factors involving repeated and non-repeated linear factors, non-repeated quadratic factors, definite integral-definite integral as a limit of sum, fundamental theorem of integral calculus (without proof), evaluation of definite integral 1) by substitution, 2) integration by parts, properties of definite integrals.
Integral Calculus :
Integral as an anti-derivative. Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions. Integration using trigonometric identities.
Evalution of simple integrals of the type
, ,
Integral as limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.Properties of definite integrals. Evaluation of definite integrals, determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves in standard form.
Human Health and Diseases : Concepts of Immunology:
Immunity Types,
Vaccines,
Structure of Antibody,
Antigen-Antibody Complex,
Antigens on blood cells.
Pathogens and Parasites (Amoebiasis, Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, Common cold and ring worm).
Adolescence,
drug
alcohol abuse.
Cancer
AIDS.
Biology and Human Welfare: Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
Magnetic Effects of Electric Current :
Ampere's law and its applications,
Moving coil galvanometer, Ammeter, Voltmeter,
Sensitivity of moving coil galvanometer,
Cyclotron.
Moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism :
Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving
charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism :
Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.
Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Moving coil galvanometer, its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Biomolecules Carbohydrates: Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides d-l configuration (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen), importance.
Proteins: Elementary idea of -amino acids, peptide, linkage, polypeptides, proteins; structure of amines-primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
Lipids and hormones (elementary idea) excluding structure, their classification and functions.
Vitamins: Classification and functions.
Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA.
Biomolecules :
Carbohydrates-Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.
Proteins-Elementary idea of-amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
Hormones-Elementary idea (excluding structure).
Vitamins-Classification and function.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.
BioMolecules :
General introduction and importance of biomolecules.
Carbohydrates-Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides (sucrose, lactose, maltose) and polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen).
Proteins-Elementary Idea of amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
Vitamins-Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids-Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic acids.
Applications of definite integral :
Area under the curve : area bounded by curve and axis (simple problems), area bounded by two curves, volume of solid of revolution-volume of solid obtained by revolving the area under the curve about the axis (simple problems).
Integral Calculus :
Integral as limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Properties of definite integrals. Evaluation of definite integrals, determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves in standard form.
Magnetism :
Circular current loop as a magnetic dipole,
Magnetic dipole moment of revolving electron,
Magnetisation and magnetic intensity,
Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism, Ferromagnetism on the basis of domain theory,
Curie temperature.
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism :
Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines;
Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements.
Para-, dia-and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples.
Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths.
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism :
Para-, dia- and ferro- magnetic substances.
Magnetic susceptibility and permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and permanent magnets.
Polymers : Polymers Classification-natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers; natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, and rubber. Biodegradable and non biodegradable polymers.
Polymers : Classification-Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.
Polymers :
General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization - addition and condensation, copolymerization;
Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization; some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses - polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.
Differential equation :
Definition-differential equation, order, degree, general solution, particular solution of differential equation, formation of differential equation-formation of differential equation by eliminating arbitary constants (at most two constants), solution of first order and first degree differential equation-variable separable method, homogeneous differential equation (equation reducible to homogeneous form are not expected), Linear differential equation, applications : population growth, bacterial colony growth, surface area, Newton's laws of cooling, radioactive decay.
Differential Equations :
Ordinary differential equations, their order and degree. Formation of differential equations. Solution of differential equations by the method of separation of variables, solution of homogeneous and linear differential equations of the type:
Human Circulation : Blood composition and coagulation,
Blood groups.
Structure and pumping action of Heart.
pumping action
Blood Vessels.
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation.
Heart beat and Pulse.
Rhythmicity of Heart beat.
Cardiac output,
Regulation of cardiac activity.
Blood related disorders: Hypertension,coronary artery disease, angina pectoris,and heart failure.
ECG,
Lymphatic System (Brief idea)
Human Physiology :
Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
Electromagnetic Inductions :
Laws of electromagnetic induction, proof of,
Eddy currents,
Self induction and mutual induction,
Need for displacement current,
Transformer,
Coil rotating in uniform magnetic induction,
Alternating currents,
Reactance and impedance,
LC oscillations(qualitative treatment only)
Power in a.c circuit with resistance,
inductance and capacitance,
Resonant circuit,
Wattless current,
AC generator.
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents :
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's law, induced emf and current; Lenz's Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual
inductance.
Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations
(qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current.
AC generator and transformer.
Electromagnetic Waves
Need for displacement current.
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents :
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's law, induced emf and current; Lenz's Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit, resonance; Quality factor, power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.
1. Chemicals in medicines : analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines elementary idea of antioxidants
2. Chemicals in food : Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.
3. Cleansing agents : Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Chemistry in Everyday Life :
Chemicals in medicines-analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics,
antacids, antihistamines.
Chemicals in food-preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
Cleansing agents-soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Chemicals in medicines : Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamins - their meaning and common examples.
Chemicals in food - Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents - common examples.
Cleansing agents - Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Probability distribution :
Probability distribution of a random variable-definition of a random variable, discrete and continuous random variable, probability mass function (p.m.f.), probability distribution of a discrete random variable, cumulative probability distribution of a discrete random variable, expected value, variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable, probability density function (p.d.f.), distribution function of a continuous random variable.
Statistics and Probability : Probability -
Probability of an event, addition and multiplication theorems of probability, Baye's theorem, probability distribution of a random variate, Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution.
Human Excretion and Osmoregulation : Modes of excretion-Ammonotelism,ureotelism, uricotelism.
Excretory System.
Composition of urine.
formation of urine.
Role of Kidney in Osmoregulation.
Regulation of kidney function: reninangiotensin,
atrial natriuretic factor,
ADH
Diabetes inspidus,
role of other organs in excretion.
Disorders; Kidney failure, Dialysis, Kidney stone (renal calculi). Transplantation. Uraemia, nephritis. Composition of lymph and its functions.
Human Physiology :
Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
Electrons and Photons :
Photoelectric effect,
Hertz and Lenard's observations,
Einstein's equation,
Particle nature of light.
Nature of Matter and Radiation :
Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation- particle nature of light.
Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation :
Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation; particle nature of light.
Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution :
Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution Definition of Bernoulli trial, conditions for Binomial distribution, binomial distribution (p.m.f.), mean, variance and standard deviation, calculation of probabilities (without proof), Normal distribution : p.d.f., mean, variance and standard deviation, standard normal variable, simple problems (without proof).
Statistics and Probability : Probability -
Probability of an event, addition and multiplication theorems of probability, Baye's theorem, probability distribution of a random variate, Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution.
Human Control and Co-ordination : Nervous System
Structure and functions of brain and Spinal cord,
brief idea about PNS and ANS.
Transmission of nerve impulse.
Reflex action.
Sensory receptors (eye and ear),
Sensory perception,
general idea of other sense organs.
Endocrine System
Endocrine glands
PITUITARY GLAND :
PINEAL GLAND:
THYROID GLAND :
PARATHYROID GLAND :
THYMUS GLAND :
ADRENAL GLAND :
Hormones and their functions
Mechanism of hormone action.
Hormones as messengers and regulators.
Hormonal imbalance and diseases:Common disorders (Dwarfism,Acromegaly, cretinism, goiter,exopthalmic goiter, Diabetes mellitus,Addison's disease)
Human Physiology :
Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison's disease).
Atoms, Molecules and Nuclei :
Alpha particle scattering experiment,
Rutherford's model of atom.
Bohr's model, Hydrogen spectrum,
Composition and size of nucleus,
Radioactivity,
Decay law,
massenergy relation,
mass defect,
B.E. per nucleon and its variation with mass number,
Nuclear fission and fusion,
deBroglie hypothesis,
Matter waves- wave nature of particles,
Wavelength of an electron,
Davisson and Germer experiment,
Continuous and characteristics X-rays.
Atoms and Nuclei :
Alpha-particle scattering experiments; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.
Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.
Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/ rays and their properties decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect;
binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.
Nature of Matter and Radiation :
Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).
Atoms and Nuclei :
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.
Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation :
Matter waves-wave nature of particle, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment.
Human Reproduction : Reproductive system in male
Histology of testis and ovary.
Reproductive system in female.
Histology of testis and ovary.
Reproductive cycle.
Production of gametes,
fertilization,
implantation.
Embryo development up to three germinal layers.
Pregnancy,
placenta,
PARTURITION (CHILDBIRTH):
lactation (Elementary idea).
Reproductive health-
birth control, Contraception
sexually transmitted diseases.
MTP,
Amniocentesis;
Infertility
assisted reproductive technologies-IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).
Reproduction :
Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesisspermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control- Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies -IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).
Semiconductors :
Energy bands in solids,
Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors,
P-type and N-type semiconductor,
P-N junction diode,
I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias,
Rectifiers,
Zener diode as a voltage regulator,
Photodiode,
Solar cell,
I-V characteristics of LED,
Transistor action and its characteristics,
Transistor as anamplifier (CE mode),
Transistor as a switch,
Oscillators and Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR)
Electronic Devices :
Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators and semiconductors; semiconductor diode-I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).
Transistor as a switch.
Electronic Devices :
Semiconductors; semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.
Organisms and Environment -II : Population and ecological adaptations:
population interactions-mutualism,competition, predation, parasitism,
population attributes- growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Biodiversity and its conservation-
Biodiversity- concept, patterns, importance, loss.
Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation, Hotspots,
endangered organisms,extinction,
red data book,
biosphere reserves,
national parks and sanctuaries.
Environmental issues:
air pollution and its control,
water pollution and its control
radioactive waste management. (Case studies any two)
Ecology and environment :
Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
Ecology and environment : Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Communication Systems : Elements of communication system,
bandwidth of signals,
bandwidth of transmission medium,
Need for modulation,
Production and detection of an amplitude modulated wave,
space communication,
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.
Electromagnetic Waves :
Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
Communication Systems :
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation, Need for modulation, Amplitude and Frequency Modulation, Bandwidth of signals, Bandwidth of Transmission medium, Basic Elements of a Communication System (Block Diagram only).
Measurement : Introduction, Need for measurement, Units for measurement, System of Units, S.I. Units, Fundamental and derived units, Dimensional analysis, Order of magnitude and significant figures, Accuracy and errors in measurement.
Physical World and Measurement :
Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.
Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass
and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.
Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
Measurement : Physics, technology and society, S I units, Fundamental and derived units. Least count, accuracy and precision of measuring instruments, Errors in measurement, Significant figures. Dimensions of Physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry : Importance and scope of chemistry. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic theory : concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass : Avogadro's law and Avogadro number, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichimetry.
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry :
General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry.
Laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.
Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
Some Basic concepts in Chemistry : Matter and its nature, Dalton's atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule, element and compound; Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis; Laws of chemical combination; Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae; Chemical equations and stoichiometry.
Measurement of Angles :
Need & concept, Revision of directed angle (+ve and -ve angles), zero angle, straight angle, angles in standard position, coterminal angles, angles in quadrant & quadrantal angles. Sexagesimal system, circular system, relation between degree measure and radian measure. Theorem: Radian is a constant angle. Length of an arc of a circle (without proof). Area of the sector of a circle is in radians (without proof).
Trigonometry :
Relations between sides and angles of a triangle, sine rule, cosine rule, half-angle
formula and the area of a triangle, inverse trigonometric functions (principal value
only).
Diversity in Organism :
1. Diversity in living organisms-Brief idea.
2. Systematic and binomial system of nomenclature - meaning of the terms taxonomy, systematics, classification and nomenclature, Need of classification. Three domains of life, Concept of species. Taxonomic hierarchy with examples. Binomial nomenclature explanation, significance and examples.
3. Classification of living organisms (five Kingdom classification) – Major groups and principles of classification for each Kingdom with examples.
4. Lichens - Meaning, characters, examples and importance.
5. Viruses and viroids - Definitions, characters, types with examples, Economic importance and list of viral diseases.
Diversity in Living World :
What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature;
Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.
Scalars and Vectors< : Addition and subtraction of vectors, Product of vectors.
b>Kinematics :
Scalar and vector quantities, Position and displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors.
Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components.
Scalar and Vector products of Vectors.
Kinematics :
Scalars and Vectors, Vector addition and Subtraction, Zero Vector, Scalar and Vector products, Unit Vector, Resolution of a Vector.
States of matter : Gases and liquids :
Three states of matter. Intermolecular interactions, type of bonding. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle's law, Charles law, Gay Lussac's law. Ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation. Ideal gas equation. Deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases. Critical temperature. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea) Liquid State -Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).
States of Matter: Gases and Liquids :
Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle's law, Charle's law, Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.
Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).
States of Matter :
Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.
Gaseous State: Measurable properties of gases; Gas laws - Boyle's law, Charle's law, Graham's law of diffusion, Avogadro's law, Dalton's law of partial pressure; Concept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation, Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates); Concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities; Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor, van der Waals equation, liquefaction of gases, critical constants.
Liquid State: Properties of liquids - vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only).
Trigonometric functions :
Need & concept, Trigonometric functions with the help of standard unit circle, signs of trigonometric functions in different quadrants, trigonometric functions of particular angles , domain and range of trigonometric functions, periodicity of functions, fundamental identities, graphs of trigonometric functions, Graph of , trigonometric functions of negative angles.
Trigonometry :
Trigonometrical identities and equations. Trigonometrical functions. Inverse trigonometrical functions and their properties. Heights and Distances.
Kingdom Plantae :
1. Salient features of major plant groups - Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons). Three to five salient features and two examples of each category.
2. Botanical gardens and herbaria - Meaning, importance and list of gardens and herbaria in India.
Diversity in Living World :
Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).
Tools for study of Taxonomy - Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
Projectile motion : Uniformly accelerated motion along straight line, Non uniform motion, Position time graph and velocity-time graph, Equation of a projectile path, Time of
flight, Horizontal range, Maximum height of a projectile, Relative velocity.
Kinematics :
Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion,
average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs, for
uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).
Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Relative velocity.
Kinematics ;
Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity
Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion. Relative Velocity.
Structure of atom :
Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Rutherford's model and its limitations, Bohr's model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
Structure of Atom : Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
Atomic Structure :
Discovery of sub-atomic particles (electron, proton and neutron); Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom - its postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr's model; Dual nature of matter, de-Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features, concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions; Variation of and with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance; shapes of s, p and d - orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number; Rules for filling electrons in orbitals - aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.
Trigonometric functions of compound angles :
Introduction, trigonometric functions of sum and difference, trigonometric functions of multiple angles (upto double and triple angles only), trigonometric functions of half angles.
Trigonometry :
Relations between sides and angles of a triangle, sine rule, cosine rule, half-angle
formula and the area of a triangle, inverse trigonometric functions (principal value
only).
Biochemistry of cell :
1. Basic chemical constituents of living bodies.
2. Structure and function of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids in brief.
3. Enzymes - Definition, Types, general properties, Enzyme action and factors affecting enzyme activity in brief.
Cell Structure and Function :
Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.
Force : Types of forces, General idea of gravitation, electromagnetic and nuclear forces, Law of conservation of momentum, Work done by a variable force. Workenergy
theorem, Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions, Inertial and non-intertial frames, Moment of force, Couple and properties of couple, Centre of mass, Centre of gravity, Conditions of equilibrium of a rigid body.
Laws of Motion :
Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton's first law of motion; momentum and Newton's second law of motion;
impulse; Newton's third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.
Equilibrium of concurrent forces.
Work, Energy and Power :
Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.
Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body :
Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid
body; centre of mass of uniform rod.
Equilibrium of rigid bodies
Laws of Motion: Force and Inertia, Newton's First Law of motion; Momentum, Newton's Second Law of motion; Impulse; Newton's Third Law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications, Equilibrium of concurrent forces.
Work, Energy and Power :
Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic and potential energies, work energy theorem, power.
Potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and non-conservative forces; Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
Rotational Motion (XI) :
Centre of mass of a two-particle system, Centre of mass of a rigid body
Periodic table : Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic radii, ionic radii. Inert gas radii nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.Enthalpy: Explanation and definition of term. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence.
Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties : Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements- atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence.
Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties :
Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elements-atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity.
Factorization Formulae :
Introduction, Formulae for conversion of sum or difference into products, formulae for conversion of product into sum or difference, trigonometric functions of angles of a triangle.
Trigonometry :
Trigonometric functions, their periodicity and graphs, addition and subtraction formulae, formulae involving multiple and sub-multiple angles, general solution of
trigonometric equations.
Relations between sides and angles of a triangle, sine rule, cosine rule, half-angle formula and the area of a triangle, inverse trigonometric functions (principal value only).
Friction in solids and liquids : Friction in solids and liquids Origin and nature of frictional forces, Laws of static friction, Laws of kinetic friction, Pressure due to fluid column, Pascal's Law and its applications, Effect of gravity on fluid pressure, Viscosity, Streamline flow, Turbulent flow, Viscous force, Newton's formula, Stokes' law, Equation for terminal velocity, Raynold's number, Bernoulli's principle and its applications.
Laws of Motion :
Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.
Properties of Bulk Matter (XI) :
Viscosity, Stokes' law, terminal velocity, Reynold's number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulli's
theorem and its applications.
Laws of Motion: Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction.
Properties of Solids and Liquids :
Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal's law and its applications. Viscosity, Stokes' law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, Reynolds number. Bernoulli's principle and its applications. "
Redox reactions : Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, Balancing redox reactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number.
Redox Reactions :
Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers.
Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry
Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.
Locus :
Introduction, Definition and equation of locus, points of locus, shift of the origin.
Co-ordinate Geometry :
Cartesian system of rectangular co-ordinates in a plane, distance formula, section formula, locus and its equation, translation of axes, slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes.
Morphology of Plants :
1. Morphology, anatomy and functions of different parts - Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed. (To be dealt along with the relevant practicals of the practical syllabus)
2. Plant tissues
Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants : Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).
Sound Waves : Waves and oscillations, Progressive waves, Characteristics of transverse waves, Characteristics of longitudinal waves, Sound as longitudinal wave motion, Relation between v, f and, Newton's formula for velocity of sound, Laplace's correction.
Oscillations and Waves :
Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave.
Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode
and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect.
Oscillations and Waves :
Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of a wave. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, Standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect in sound.
Chemical equilibrium : Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium, Le Chatelier's principle. Ionic equilibrium: Ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). Buffer solutions, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples.) Handerson equation.
Equilibrium : Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chatelier's principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of PH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).
Equilibrium :
Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium.
Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid -liquid, liquid - gas and solid - gas equilibria, Henry's law, general characterics of equilibrium involving physical processes.
Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, significance of G and Go in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier's principle.
Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted - Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid - base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions.
Straight Line :
Revision. Inclination of a line, slope of a line, equation of lines parallel to co coordinate axes, intercepts of a line, revision
of different forms of equations of a line, slope-point form, slope-intercept form, two point form, double intercept form, other forms of equations of a line, parametric form, normal form, general form, Theorem 1 : A general linear equation , provided A and B are not both zero, simultaneously, always represents straight line. Theorem 2 : Every straight line has an equation of the form , where A, B and C are constants (without proof), Reduction of general equation of a line into normal form, intersection of two lines, parallel lines, perpendicular lines, identical lines, condition for concurrency of three lines, angle between lines, distance of a point from a line, distance between two parallel lines, equations of bisectors of angle between two lines, family of lines, equation of a straight line parallel to a given line, equation of a straight line perpendicular to a given line, equation of family of lines through the intersection of two lines.
Co-ordinate Geometry :
Cartesian system of rectangular co-ordinates in a plane, distance formula, section formula, locus and its equation, translation of axes, slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes. Straight lines :
Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two lines, conditions for concurrence of three lines, distance of a point from a line, equations of internal and external bisectors of angles between two lines, coordinates of centroid, orthocentre and circumcentre of a triangle, equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines.
Plant Water Relations and Mineral Nutrition :
1. Movement of water, food, nutrients and gases -Absorption of water and minerals,Apoplast and Symplast Pathways. Active and passive absorption in brief.
2. Guttation Ascent of sap, root pressure concept and cohesion - tension theory. Translocation of sugars through phloem brief account. Transpiration – structure of stomata, mechanism of opening and closing of stomata, Role of K+ ions
3. Role of water and minerals - macronutrients and micronutrients and their role. Mineral deficiency symptoms, Mineral toxicity, Elementary idea of Hydroponics, Nitrogen Metabolism (nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation)
Plant Physiology :
Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations -Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water - Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
Thermal properties of matter : Temperature and heat, Measurement of temperature, Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature, Thermal expansion, Specific heat capacity, Calorimetry, Change of state, Latent heat, Heat transfer.
Properties of Bulk Matter :
Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv-calorimetry; change of state-latent heat.
Properties of Solids and Liquids :
Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state, latent heat. Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, Newton's law of cooling.
Surface chemistry :
Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state : distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; Lyophilic, Lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsion - types of emulsions. Elementary idea of nanomaterials.
Surface Chemistry : Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.
Surface Chemistry :
Adsorption - Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids - Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.
Catalysis - Homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis and its mechanism.
Colloidal state - distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids - lyophilic, lyophobic; multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids - Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation; Emulsions and their characteristics.
Circle and Conics :
Revision, standard equation, centre-radius form, diameter form, general equation, parametric equations of standard equation, Conics Napees - Intersection of Napees of a cone and Plane, introduction, focus-directrix property of parabola, ellipse, hyperbola, parabola, standard equation (different forms of parabola), parametric equations, ellipse, standard equation, hyperbola, standard equation, parametric equations. Application of conic section.
Circles, conic sections :
Standard form of equation of a circle, general form of the equation of a circle, its radius and centre, equation of a circle when the end points of a diameter are given, points of intersection of a line and a circle with the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to a circle, equation of the tangent. Sections of cones, equations of conic sections (parabola, ellipse and hyperbola) in standard forms, condition for to be a tangent and point (s) of tangency.
Plant Growth and Development:
Seed dormancy Germination - Hypogeal, epigeal and viviparous.
Definition and characteristics of growth. Phases of growth, Conditions of growth, Differentiation, de - differentiation, redifferentiation Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell Growth regulators - auxins, gibberellins, cytokinines, ethylene and abscissic acid (role in brief) Photoperiodism, Photomorphogenesis including brief account of Phytochromes (Elementary idea) Vernalization.
Plant Physiology :
Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
Reflection of Light : Refraction of monochromatic light, Snell's law, Total internal reflection, Critical angle, Optical fibre, Dispersion of light, Prism formula, Angular dispersion and dispersive power, Rainbow, Scattering of light, Blue colour of sky, Colour of sun at sunrise and sunset. Elementary idea of Raman effect.
Optics :
Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications
optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker's formula. Magnification, power of a
lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through
a prism.
Scattering of light-blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
Optics :
Reflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula, Total internal reflection and its applications, Deviation and Dispersion of light by a prism.
Nature of chemical bond : Valence electrons, ionic bond, Born Haber cycle : covalent bond parameters. Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure :
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond.
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure :
Kossel - Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds.
Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.
Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity, Fajan's rule, dipole moment; Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules.
Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory - Its important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals; Resonance.
Molecular Orbital Theory - Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy.
Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications.
Vectors :
Definition, magnitude of a vector, free and localized vectors, types of vectors, zero vector, unit vector, equality at vectors, negative of a vector, collinear vectors, coplanar vectors, coinitial vectors, like and unlike vectors, scalar multiple of a vector, triangle law, parallelogram law, polygon law, properties of addition of vectors, three dimensional co-ordinate geometry, coordinate axes & coordinate planes in space, co-ordinates of a point in space, distance between two points in a space, unit vectors along axes, position vector of a point in a space, product of vectors, scalar product, definition, properties, vector product, definition, properties, simple applications, work done by force, resolved part of a force, moment of a force.
Vector Algebra :
Vectors and scalars, addition of vectors, components of a vector in two dimensions and three dimensional space, scalar and vector products, scalar and vector triple product.
Kingdom Animalia :
1. Salient features of major phyla under kingdom Animalia. Classification of following phyla with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Porifera, co elenterata ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, Nemathelminthes, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Hemichordata. Classification of phylum chordata upto class level with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Urochordata, Cephalochordata, Cyclostomata, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia.
2. Zoological parks and Museums - General idea with list.
Diversity in Living World :
Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).
Ray Optics : Reflection of light by spherical mirrors, Refraction at single curved surface, Lens maker's equation, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Concept of conjugate focii, Correction of eye defects, Magnifying power of simple microscope, Magnifying power of compound microscope, Magnifying power of telescope, Reflecting telescope-schematic diagram with explanation.
Optics :
Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia and
hypermetropia) using lenses.
Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Optics :
Lens Formula, Magnification, Power of a Lens, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Microscope and Astronomical Telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Hydrogen : Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydridesionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water. Hydrogen peroxide- preparation, properties and structure; hydrogen as a fuel. Uses of hydrogen peroxide.
Hydrogen : Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides-ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure;
Hydrogen : Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water; Structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide; Classification of hydrides - ionic, covalent and interstitial; Hydrogen as a fuel.
Linear Inequations :
Linear inequations in one variable - solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution, solutions of system of linear inequations in one variable, Linear inequations in two variables -solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution, solution of linear inequations in two variables & graphical solution, solutions of system of linear inequations in two variables, Replacement of a set or domain of a set, Transposition."
Sets, Relations and Functions :
Sets and their representation; Union, intersection and complement of sets and their algebraic properties; Power set; Relation, Types of relations, equivalence relations, functions;. one-one, into and onto functions, composition of functions.
Differential Equations-
Ordinary differential equations, their order and degree. Formation of differential equations. Solution of differential equations by the method of separation of variables, solution of homogeneous and linear differential equations.
Organization of Cell :
1. Cell theory brief account
2. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell - structure and examples.
3. Plant cell and animal cell.
4. Nuclear organization - Nucleus, nucleolus and nucleoplasm.
5. Cell wall and cell membrane - (fluid mosaic model).
6. Cell organelles: Plastids, Mitochondria, Golgi complex, Lysosomes, Endoplasmic reticulum, Vacuoles, Ribosome and Centrioles (ultrstructure and functions). Microbodies, cytoskeleton, cilia and flagella.
Cell Structure and Function : Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
Electrostatics : Frictional electricity, Charges and their conservation, Coulomb's law and dielectric constant, Forces between multiple electric charges, Superposition principle of forces, Continuous distribution of charges, Concept of charge density, Electric field intensity, Potential energy, Electric potential due to point charge, Relation between electric field intensity and potential, Potential difference, Volt and electron volt, Electric dipole and dipole moment, Electric lines of force. Equipotential surfaces, P.E. of single charge and system of charges.
Electrostatics :
Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb's law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
Electrostatics :
Electric charges: Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-forces between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field: Electric field due to a point charge, Electric field lines, Electric dipole, Electric field due to a dipole, Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
s-Block elements (Alkali and alkaline earth metals) :
Group 1 and Group 2 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. Calcium oxide and calcium carbonate and industrial uses of lime and limestone, biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium.
s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) :
Group I and group 2 elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds:
Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium.
Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.
s - Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals) :
Group 1 and Group 2 Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships.
Preparation and properties of some important compounds - sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; Biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.
Determinants :
Revision, determinant of order three, definition, expansion, properties of determinants, minors & co-factors, applications of determinants, condition of consistency, area of a triangle, Cramer's rule for system of equations in three variables.
Matrices and Determinants :
Properties of determinants, evaluation of determinants, area of triangles using determinants. Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using determinants and elementary transformations, Test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables using determinants and matrices.
Current Electricity : Ohm's law, Resistance, Specific resistance, Temperature dependence of resistance, Colour code of carbon resistor, Series and and internal resistance of cell, Work done by electric current, Power in electric circuit, Cells in series and in parallel, Elementary idea of secondary cells.
Current Electricity :
Ohm's law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (liner and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical
resistivity and conductivity.
Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence
of resistance.
Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.
Current Electricity :
Electric current, Drift velocity, Ohm's law, Electrical resistance, Resistances of different materials, V-I characteristics of Ohmic and nonohmic conductors, Electrical energy and power, Electrical resistivity, Colour code for resistors; Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature dependence of resistance.
p-Block elements
Group Introduction to p-Block elements
Group 13 elements :
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group. Boronphysical and chemical properties, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium; uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.
Group 14 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behavior of first element. Carbon – catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds; oxides. Important compounds of silicon and their uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites and structure of silicates.
p-Block elements : Some p-Block Elements
General Introduction to p-Block Elements.
Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.
General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides.
Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses.
p - Block Elements :
Group 13 to Group 14 Elements
General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each group.
Groupwise study of the p - block elements
Group - 13
Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium; Structure, properties and uses of borax, boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.
Group - 14
Tendency for catenation; Structure, properties and uses of allotropes and oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride, silicates, zeolites and silicones.
Matrices :
Introduction, concepts, notations, order, types of matrices - zero matrix, row matrix, column matrix, square matrix, determinant of a square matrix, diagonal matrix, scalar matrix, identity matrix, triangular matrices, singular & non-singular matrices, transpose of a matrix, symmetric & skew symmetric matrices, operations on matrices – equality, addition, subtraction, multiplication of a matrix by a scalar, simple properties, multiplication of matrices - definition, properties of matrix multiplication, properties of transpose of a matrix
Matrices and Determinants :
Matrices, algebra of matrices, types of matrices, determinants and matrices of order two and three. Properties of determinants, evaluation of determinants, area of triangles using determinants. Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using determinants and elementary transformations, Test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables using determinants and matrices.
Study of Animal Type: Morphology, anatomy and functions of digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous, and reproductive systems of cockroach (Brief account only).
.
Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants : Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)
Magnetic Effect of Electric Current : Oersted's experiment, Biot Savart's law, Right hand rule, Magnetic induction at the centre of circular coil carrying current, Magnetic induction at a point along the axis of a coil carrying current, Fleming's left hand rule, Force between two infinitely long current carrying parallel conductors, Definition of Ampere, Force acting on a conductor carrying current in magnetic field, Torque on a current loop in magnetic field.
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism :
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment. Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field.
Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field.
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism :
Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid.
Basic principles and techniques in organic chemistry : Basic principles and techniques in organic chemistry General introduction, methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Melting point and boiling point. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond; inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond; free radicals,carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
Organic Chemistry : Some Basic Principles and Techniques
General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.
Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
Some Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry :
Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules - hybridization (s and p); Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: - C = C - , - C ? C - and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism - structural and stereoisomerism.
Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)
Covalent bond fission - Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond -Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.
Common types of organic reactions- Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement.
Sets, Relations and Functions : Set - Revision, subset, proper improper subset and their properties, union, intersection, disjoint sets, empty set, finite & infinite sets, equal sets, equivalent sets, universal set, Venn diagrams, complement of a set, difference of two sets, power set, Relations - ordered pairs, equality of ordered pairs, Cartesian product of two sets, No. of elements in the Cartesian product of two finite sets, Cartesian product of the reals with itself, definition of relation, pictorial diagrams, domain, codomain and range of a relation, types of relations, one-one, many-one, binary equivalence relation, functions -function as a special kind of relation, pictorial representation of a function, domain, codomain and range of a function, equal functions, types of functions -constant function, identity function, one-one function, onto function, into function, even & odd functions, polynomial function, rational function, modulus function, signum & greatest integer, exponential function, logarithmic function, functions with their graphs, sum, difference, product, quotient of functions, scalar multiplication, composite function, inverse function, binary operations, real valued function of the real variable, domain and range of these functions.
Sets, Relations and Functions :
Sets and their representation; Union, intersection and complement of sets and their algebraic properties; Power set; Relation, Types of relations, equivalence relations, functions;. one-one, into and onto functions, composition of functions.
Human Nutrition :
i) Digestive system in brief
ii) Physiology of digestion, gastrointestinal hormones, Peristalsis. Calorific value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
iii) Absorption, assimilation and egestion
iv) Nutritional and digestive disorders - PEM, indigestion, constipation, Jaundice, vomiting and diarrhoea
Human Physiology :
Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders - PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
Magnetism : Origin of magnetism due to moving charges, Equivalence between magnetic dipole and circular coil carrying current, Definition of magnetic dipole moment and its unit, Torque acting on a magnet in uniform magnetic induction, Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, Magnetic field lines, Magnetic induction due to bar magnet at a point along the axis and at a point along equator, Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements, Electromagnets and factors affecting their strength.
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism :
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron.
Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a
magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines;
Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements.
Para-, dia-and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples.
Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism :
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro-magnetic substances.
Magnetic susceptibility and permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and permanent magnets.
Alkanes : Classification of hydrocarbons - Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
Hydrocarbons :
Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
Hydrocarbons :
Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions.
Alkanes - Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane); Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.
Logarithms :
Introduction, definition, properties, laws of logarithms, change of base, characteristics & mantissa - method of finding characteristics, method of finding mantissa, method of finding antilogarithm.
Limit, Continuity and Differentiability : Real - valued functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions.
Logarithmic Function, Graph of Logarithmic Function, Properties of Logarithmic Function, Changing of Base.
Human Respiration : Respiratory organs in animals (Recall only)
i) Respiratory system in brief
ii) Breathing- inspiration and expiration.
iii) Exchange of gases, transport of and and tissue respiration. Regulation of Respiration, Respiratory volumes.
iv)Respiratory disorders- Asthma, Emphysema and occupational lung diseases.
Human Physiology :
Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
Electromagnetic Waves : Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics, Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic spectrum, Space communication, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere. parallel combination of resistors, E.M.F.
Electromagnetic Waves :
Need for displacement current.
Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including
elementary facts about their uses.
Electromagnetic Waves :
Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays). Applications of e.m. waves
Alkenes : Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethane), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation. Chemical reactions; addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikoff's addition and peroxide effect) ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
Hydrocarbons :
Alkanes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov's addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
Hydrocarbons :
Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions.
Alkenes - Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff's and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis, oxidation, and polymerization.
Complex Numbers :
Introduction, need for complex numbers, definitions -(real parts, imaginary parts, complex conjugates, modulus, argument), algebra of complex numbers - equality, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, powers and square root of a complex number, higher powers of i, DeMoivre's formula - (without proof), square root of a complex number, properties of complex numbers - properties of addition of complex numbers, 1) Closure Property 2) Commulative Law 3) Associative law 4) Existence of additive identity 5) Existence of additive inverse. Properties of product of complex numbers - Existance of multiplicative identity -Existance of multiplicative inverse, properties of conjugate & modulus of complex numbers, Argand Diagram -representation of a complex number as a point in plane, geometrical meaning of modulus and argument, polar representation of complex numbers, Fundamental theorem of algebra, cube roots of unity - solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system, cube roots of unity.
Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations :
Complex numbers as ordered pairs of reals, Representation of complex numbers in the form a+ib and their representation in a plane, Argand diagram, algebra of complex numbers, modulus and argument (or amplitude) of a complex number, square root of a complex number, triangle inequality, Quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions. Relation between roots and co-efficients, nature of roots, formation of quadratic equations with given roots.
Human skeleton and Locomotion:
Brief account of human skeleton:
A] Axial Skeleton
B] Appendicular Skeleton (Details to be dealt with the relevant practical)
Types of joints - synarthroses, amphiarthroses, and diarthroses. Types of diarthroses - ball and socket, hinge, condyloid, pivot, saddle and gliding joints.
Types of Movement- Ciliary, Flagellar, Muscular Mechanism of muscle movement: Contractile proteins and Muscle contraction. Skeletal and muscular disorders- Myasthenia gravis, Osteoporosis, arthritis, muscular dystrophy tetany and gout.
Human Physiology :
Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
Alkynes : Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethylene), physical properties. Methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides, water.
Hydrocarbons :
Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
Hydrocarbons :
Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions.
Alkynes - Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; Polymerization.
Sequences & Series :
Revision - sequence, A.P., Sum of first n terms of A.P., properties of A.P., geometric progression - introduction, general term, sum of the first 'n' terms, (n terms from the end of G.P.) containing finitely many terms & sum to infinite terms, properties of G.P., H.P. as a special type of A.P, Means - arithmetic mean, geometric mean, harmonic mean, relation between A.M., G.M., H.M., Arithmetico-Geometric sequence, special series, sum of cube of first n natural numbers, sum of cube of first n odd natural nos., exponential & logarithmic series.
Sequences and Series :
Arithmetic and Geometric progressions, insertion of arithmetic, geometric means between two given numbers. Relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum upto n terms of special series: Sn, Sn2, Sn3. Arithmetico -Geometric progression.
Aromatic compounds :
Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; benzene; resonance aromaticity; chemical properties; mechanism of electrophilic substitution.- nitration, sulphonaiton, halogenation, Friedel Craft alkylation and acylation; Carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Hydrocarbons :
Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution- Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft's alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Hydrocarbons :
Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions.
Aromatic hydrocarbons - Nomenclature, benzene - structure and aromaticity; Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel - Craft's alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene.
Permutations & combinations :
Introduction, fundamental principle of counting, factorial notation, permutations, when all r objects are distinct, when all r objects are not distinct, circular permutations, simple applications, combinations -definition, properties, relations between permutations and combinations, simple applications.
Permutation & Combination:
Fundamental principle of counting, permutation as an arrangement and combination as selection, Meaning of , simple applications.
Environmental chemistry :
Environmental pollution- air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants, acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, green house effect and global warming. Pollution due to industrial wastes, green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
Environmental Chemistry :
Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warmingpollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
Environmental Chemistry :
Environmental pollution - Atmospheric, water and soil.
Atmospheric pollution - Tropospheric and stratospheric
Tropospheric pollutants - Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Green house effect and Global warming; Acid rain; Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and prevention.
Stratospheric pollution - Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer - its mechanism and effects.
Water Pollution - Major pollutants such as, pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.
Soil pollution - Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides,. herbicides and fungicides), their harmful effects and prevention.
Strategies to control environmental pollution.
Mathematical Induction and Binomial Theorem:
Principle of mathematical induction, simple applications, binomial theorem - binomial theorem for positive integers, general term, particular term, properties of binomial coefficient with simple application, binomial theorem for any index (without proof), particular cases of binomial theorem, simple applications.
Mathematical Induction :
Principle of Mathematical Induction and its simple applications. Binomial Theorem :
Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, general term and middle term, properties of Binomial coefficients and simple applications.
Limits :
Introduction of concept, meaning of , the limit of a function, fundamental theorem on limits, algebra of limits- standard limits, without proof, limits at infinity - concepts, simple problems.
Limit, Continuity and Differentiability :
Real - valued functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, continuity and differentiability. Differentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions. Differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, composite and implicit functions; derivatives of order upto two. Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorems. Applications of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities, monotonic - increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of functions of one variable, tangents and normals.
Differentiation Definition :
derivative, derivative at a point, geometrical significance of derivative, physical significance (velocity as a rate of change of displacement), derivatives from first principle- of trigonometric functions, logarithmic functions, algebraic functions, exponential functions, rules of differentiation - derivative of sum, difference, product and quotient.
Limit, Continuity and Differentiability :
Real - valued functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions.
Integration :
Definition of integration as antiderivative, geometrical interpretation of indefinite integrals, algebra of integrals-integrals of some standard functions, rules of integration.
Integral Calculus :
Integral as an anti - derivative. Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions. Integration using trigonometric identities.
Statistics :
Measures of dispersion - range, quartile & quartile deviation (for grouped and ungrouped data), comparison of two frequency distributions with same mean, mean deviation about mean, mean deviation about median (for grouped & ungrouped data), variance, standard deviation, effect of change of origin and scale on variance and standard deviation, combined variance and standard deviation, co-efficient of variation.
Statistics and Probability : Measures of Dispersion :
Calculation of mean, median, mode of grouped and ungrouped data. Calculation of standard deviation, variance and mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data. Probability : Probability of an event, addition and multiplication theorems of probability, Baye's theorem, probability distribution of a random variate, Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution.
Probability :
Revision, types of events - events and algebra of events, axiomatic definition of probability, mutually exclusive and exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events, addition theorem - for any two events A and B, Result on complementary events. Conditional probability - definition, multiplication theorem, independent events, Baye's theorem, odds in favour and against.
Statistics and Probability : Probability
Probability of an event, addition and multiplication theorems of probability, Baye's theorem, probability distribution of a random variate, Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution.